A series arc fault location algorithm based on an the impedance method for a domestic AC system
Edwin Calderon , Patrick Schweitzer, Serge Weber
University of Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour (IJL), UMR7198, Nancy F-54000, France
firstname.lastname@example.org, Tel: +33 0768959154
Series arc faults appear frequently and unpredictably  in low voltage distribution systems when degraded and aged wires are in contact with each other. Many methods have been developed to detect this type of fault, including commercial protection systems, which have been successfully used in home electrical networks. However, a fault location methodology in low voltage systems has not been properly developed. In this context, knowing the distance at which a fault occurred could avoid damage as well as catastrophic incidents such as fires .
Much effort for locating arc faults has been devoted to developing algorithms using the impedance method, traveling wave methods and intelligent methods. However, these methods principally locate parallel faults on high power distribution systems. Some work based on reflectometry methods (TDR, STDR) has resulted in the development of algorithms for locating intermittent electric faults, mainly in the electrical systems in aircraft.
Few studies have been dedicated to locating parallel faults in short indoor power lines using the impedance method. The work developed by Yang Cao et al.  implemented an algorithm to locate a series arc fault in an experimental DC electrical system consisting of physical modules that emulate an indoor power line of 1200m. Using a similar approach, we have developed an algorithm for estimating the location of a series arc fault in a domestic AC experimental indoor power line using physical parameters of the electrical line (impedance method).
Our algorithm estimates currents at several hypothetical fault points on the line, using recorded data at both ends of the indoor power line, by looking for a current difference minimization. The test bench used for our purpose is composed of a 49 meter indoor power line used in domestic networks (220V–50Hz) and a 47 ohm power resistor load. An arc fault (carbonized path) can be inserted at many different points (40 are available) across the line.
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 Y. Cao, J. Li, M. Sumner, E. Christopher, and D.W.P. Thomas. “A new double-ended approach to the series arc fault location”. In 12th IET International Conference on Developments in Power System Protection (DPSP 2014). Mar. 2014, pp. 1-5.