Medical and Health Sciences
Isabel Tapia Páez
Dept. of Biosciences and Nutrition and Department of Medicine; Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
The era of molecular analysis of developmental dyslexia (DD) started in 2003 by the publication of the first candidate gene for dyslexia susceptibility, DYX1C1. Later, discoveries based on a combination of genetic approaches have dramatically increased the number of susceptibility genes for DD. DYX1C1 and DCDC2 among other genes have been confirmed in a number of studies, and we have the first neurobiological insight to the mechanisms of dyslexia. Much of this progress is coming from the last 4-5 years and led us to propose dyslexia as a new group of ciliopathies affecting neuronal migration, axonal guidance and causing structural effects on brain specific regions.
In the long run, we hope that a deeper knowledge acquired about the genes and proteins involved in DD will be reflected in earlier detection and support better diagnosis for the DD individuals and that understanding mechanisms regulating this specific cognitive problem may yield insight into the evolution of language capabilities that are specific to human, among all species.